Cell structure and organisation

Cell structure and organisation

Publicated on Apr 1, 2015 - Give your opinion

Cells are the basis of every living organism. But they are made differently depending on the living being they belong to. They even change according to the part of the organism they compose. In this biology course , you will find every necessary information on cells for GCSE level students.

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Content of this document of Sciences > Biology

All living things are made up of cells . Prokaryotes are (usually) unicellular without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. For example: bacteria. Eukaryotes are (usually) multi cellular and contain a nucleus and membrane bound structures. Examples include; animals, plants, fungi and protists.

  1. Animal cells
  2. Animal cells contain ; Cell Membrane: A thin skin layer around the cell to give it its shape and control what enters and exits the cell. Cytoplasm: A jelly-like substance in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place. [...]
  3. Plant cells
  4. Plant Cells contain all of the above and the following: Cell Wall: The cell wall is made of cellulose and is there to strengthen and support the cell. Chloroplasts: Are found in the green parts of plants. They are green because they contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy to make food by photosynthesis. [...]
  5. Bacterial cells
  6. Bacteria are single cellular microorganisms consisting of a cytoplasm; a cell membrane and they are surrounded by a cell wall. The genetic material floats freely within the cell, as they don’t contain a nucleus. Some will be surrounded by a slime [...]
  7. Yeast cells
  8. Yeast is a single cellular microorganism that contains a nucleus with the genetic information, cytoplasm, cell membrane and is surrounded by a cell wall. Yeast cells are able to survive for a long time even when there is little oxygen available. [...]
  9. Specialised cells
  10. Cells may be specialized for a particular function. Their structure will be specific to the function they are carrying out. For example:
  11. Fat cells
  12. Fat cells contain a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat and are able to expand 1000x their size in order to store excess fat that the body produces when more food is consumed than necessary. [...]
  13. Cone cells from human eye
  14. Cone cells are the light sensitive layer of your eye and are what allows us to see in colour. The outer segment contains visual pigment, which changes chemically in colored light. It requires energy to change it back to its original form. [...]
  15. Root hair cells
  16. Root hair cells are found close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in a lot of water and dissolved mineral ions. The root hair increases the surface area for absorption and allows them to do this more efficiently. [...]
  17. Sperm cells
  18. Sperm cells are generally released a long way from the egg they are going to fertilise. They carry the genetic information from the male parent and have to be able to travel the distance and then penetrate the egg to fertilise it. [...]
  19. Cell size
  20. The typical size of a cell is very small: 20um (0.02mm) in width. As a cell grows, its surface area to volume ratio decreases and its requirement for more oxygen and food increases. [...]
  21. Tissues and organs
  22. Cells are the building blocks of life. A group of similar cells which all carry out the same job, are called a tissue. Your muscle tissue is all made up of identical muscle cells. [...]

QMC


1 comment


JoanaRosa
JoanaRosa
Posted on Jan 11, 2016

Realy nice presentation on cells!

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