Monomers and polymers I - Biology - AS level

Monomers and polymers I - Biology - AS level

Publicated on Jul 31, 2015 - Give your opinion

Through this free course of Biology, we will focus on monomers and polymers, especially monosaccharides, disaccharides, etc.

Carbohydrates are respiratory substrates of cells and are comprised of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Note: In every carbohydrate there are always twice the number of hydrogen atoms as there are oxygen atoms. For example glucose: C6H12O6

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Monomers are small, single units that make up larger molecules, known as polymers. In order to create a polymer, many monomers are linked together by reactions known as condensation reactions, this involves the release of a water molecule. [...]


A monosaccharide is a type of carbohydrate molecule in which the atoms are arranged in a single ‘ring’ structure. Hexoses are monosaccharides that contain 6 carbon atoms in each molecule. [...]


The molecular formula of each disaccharide is NOT C12H24O12 as you would expect, but instead is C12H22O11 –this is because every time a bond forms between two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide, one molecule of water, or H2O, is released. [...]

The Condensation Reaction

A condensation reaction occurs when two monosaccharide molecules join to form a disaccharide molecule. During this reaction, a hydroxyl (-OH) group is taken from one monosaccharide and a hydrogen atom (H) is taken from the other monosaccharide to release the molecule of water, this allows a bond to be formed that holds the two monosaccharides together. [...]

The Hydrolysis Reaction

When water is added to a disaccharide, a reaction known as a hydrolysis reaction occurs. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite reaction to a condensation reaction, whereby a molecule of water is ‘added back’, thus splitting the disaccharide into its monosaccharide components. [...]

Bonding Nomenclature

The bond that holds the two α - glucose molecules together is called an α - 1, 4- glycosidic bond [...]


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Posted on Jul 15, 2016


Posted on Jul 15, 2016

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Posted on Jul 15, 2016

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